Criminal case, generally, is concerned with offences against society. Crimes are actions which infringe the basic rules and principles by which society lives. Every crime is concerned in the guilty mind. There is a popular maxim in the criminal law i.e. actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea which goes as an act without guilty mind is not a crime. A matter to be listed under the heading of crime, there must have the commision of an act with a guilty mind. Crime is an integral part of every life, it cannot be cured but it can be prevented as prevention is better than cure. Accordingly, various laws were came up to help the offenders so that they could prevent themselves from comiting a crime.
Every country has its own way of penalising the offenders. So, India is not left with it. It has a well-established law for criminal trials either it be a statutory, administrative or judicial framework for criminal trials. There are three Acts that primarily governs the penal laws in India viz. the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (Cr.PC), the Indian Penal Code, 1960 (IPC) and the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1872). Cr.P.C. is a comprehensive and exhaustive procedural law for conducting a criminal trial in India, including the method of collection of evidence, examination of witnesses, interrogation of accused, arrests, safeguards and procedure to be adopted by Police and Courts, bail, process of criminal trial, method of conviction, and the rights of the accused for a fair trial. Depending on the seriousness of the offnces and punishent prescribed therefor, criminal trial under Cr.PC has been classified into two parts viz., Magiserial trial and Session Trial. Whereas, the offenders on being proof of his/her offence penalised under the provisions of IPC, which is the primary penal law of India. With the exception of certain laws in India, the provisions of IPC are applicable to all offences. Law is always meant to be just, fair and belief. Hence, in criminal law offenders are always given an opportunity to prove themselves in their trial. Therefore, IEA has been enacted and is a complete treaty on the law of "evidence" which can be tendered in trial, manner of production of the evidence in trial, and the evidentiary value, which can be attached to such evidence. IEA also deals with the judicial presumptions, expert and scientific evidence. Certain other laws have also been enacted to deal with criminality in special circumstances.
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